The Basics of Science and Scientific Research

The Basics of Science and Scientific Research

Science is the process of gaining knowledge about the world around us. It is the basis of a vast array of human activities, from designing bridges to slowing climate change to researching cancer.

The scientific method is an iterative, logical process that builds confidence in new explanations of the natural world and provides a framework for examining and understanding human behavior. It involves the following stages:

Hypothesis (a reasoned proposition or proposal) based on observations, experience, and other data. The hypothesis is often formulated in the form of a mathematical model or in a more existential manner, describing a phenomenon as a result of some characteristic and causal explanations.

Explication – analyzing and explaining the hypothesized explanation with regard to its logic and limits, using observations or other data as evidence for or against it. The procedure of explanation consists of deductive reasoning and the use of induction. It is a method of inquiry that takes into account the fact that human experience and observation are sometimes limited and that human thinking can be subject to cognitive biases.

In order to be scientific, a theory must be testable. This means that it must be possible to observe the phenomena it describes or describe them through a scientific experiment. It is also important that the theories can be reformulated and expanded as research progresses, and that they are tested again and again by other scientists.